Chewing gumsweetened product made from chicle and similar resilient substances and chewed for its flavour. Peoples of the Mediterranean have since antiquity chewed the sweet resin of the mastic tree so named after the custom as a tooth cleanser and breath freshener. New England colonists borrowed from the Indians the custom of chewing aromatic and astringent spruce resin for the same purposes.
In the 19th century chicle was heralded by industrial developers as an equivalent to rubber. Inventor Thomas Adams, whom Santa Anna had contracted to develop a vulcanization process for the substance, was left with a ton of chicle when his experiments failed.
However, while conducting tests of various formulas, he had discovered that the desiccated resin was insoluble in water and extremely plastic.
In an attempt to salvage his investment, he began selling small portions of flavourless chicle to drugstores as an alternative to the sweetened paraffin that had itself outmoded the less-refined spruce resin for chewing.
Adams patented his concoction inand, though the formula was not the first chewing gum patented in the United States, with the addition of various flavours it became the most popular. To begin the gum-manufacturing process, blocks of gathered, hardened chicle are broken up, then screened and strained before being mixed with other gum bases, sweeteners, and flavourings during cooking.
The blended mass is passed between rollers onto a belt for cooling, after which it is sugared, cut, wrapped, and packaged. After World War II various waxes, plastics, and synthetic rubber virtually replaced chicle in chewing gum manufacture. Artificially sweetened chewing gum found a wide market in the United States beginning in the late 20th century, while mint remained the favourite among a wide variety of flavours. Chewing gum. Article Media. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback.
Thank you for your feedback. See Article History. Britannica Demystified. Is it true that gum stays in your stomach for seven years? Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. The American industry was limited mainly to penny-candy vending untilwhen the modern era of automatic selling opened with the appearance of…. Chicle is obtained as pinkish to reddish brown pieces and is said to contain both rubber and gutta-percha.
Introduced as a substitute…. History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Dayevery day in your inbox!Dave Clark on Flickr As you read this, there are over 18 million students enrolled at the nearly 5, colleges and universities currently in operation across the United States. That does not even count living expenses. Most of these 18 million students have been told over and over that a "higher education" is the key to getting a good job and living the American Dream.
They have been told not to worry about how much it costs and that there is plenty of financial aid mostly made up of loans available. Now our economy is facing the biggest student loan debt bubble in the history of the world, and when our new college graduates enter the "real world" they are finding out that the good jobs they were promised are very few and far between.
As millions of Americans wake up and start realizing that the tens of thousands of dollars that they have poured into their college educations was mostly a waste, will the great college education scam finally be exposed?
For now, the system continues to push the notion that a college education is the key to a good future and that there is plenty of "financial aid" out there for everyone that wants to go to college. Recently, U. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan visited students at T. Williams High School in Alexandria, Virginia and encouraged them to load up on college loans We want to give you money. So where will Arne Duncan be when those students find themselves locked into decades of absolutely suffocating student loan debt repayments?
What young high school students are never told is that not even bankruptcy can get you out of student loan debt. It will stay with you forever until you finally pay it off. Today each new crop of optimistic college graduates quickly discovers that there are simply not nearly enough jobs for all of them.
Thousands upon thousands of them end up waiting tables or stocking the shelves at retail stores. Many of them end up deeply bitter as they find themselves barely able to survive and yet saddled with tens of thousands of dollars in student loan debt that nobody ever warned them about. Sadly, the quality of the education that most of these college students is receiving is a complete and total joke. Take it from someone that has graduated from a couple of very highly respected institutions.
I have an undergraduate degree, a law degree and another degree on top of that, so I know what I am talking about. Higher education in America has become so dumbed-down that the family dog could literally pass most college courses. It is an absolute joke. The vast majority of college students in America spend two to four hours a day in the classroom and maybe an hour or two outside the classroom studying. The remainder of the time these "students" are out drinking beer, partying, chasing after sex partners, going to sporting events, playing video games, hanging out with friends, chatting on Facebook or getting into trouble.
When they say that college is the most fun that most people will ever have in their lives they mean it. It is basically one huge party. Of the little "education" that actually does go on, so much of it is so dedicated to pushing various social engineering agendas that it makes the whole process virtually worthless.
Most parents would be absolutely shocked if they could actually see the kind of "indoctrination" that goes on inside U. A college education can be worth it for those in very highly technical or very highly scientific fields, or for those wanting to enter one of the very few fields that is still very financially lucrative, but for nearly everyone else it is just one big money-making scam.
Oh, but you parents please keep breaking your backs to put money into the college funds of your children so that they can be spoon-fed establishment propaganda all day and party like wild animals all night for four years. But if you will not believe me, perhaps you will believe some cold, hard statistics. The following are 16 shocking facts about the student loan debt bubble and the great college education scam Source: FinAid.
16 Shocking Facts About Student Debt And The Great College Education Scam
Source: My Budget Source: Minding the Campus. Source: NYTimes. Source: The Trading Report. Source: Wall Street Journal. Source: The Chronicle. Source: The Project on Student Debt.Outside of cats making their home in empty shipping boxesno packaging tool has brought more joy to consumers than Bubble Wrap, which has been protecting fragile goods—and relieving stress—with its air-filled chambers since Here are 50 things you might not know about this shipping institution.
Wallpaper may have lost some of cachet though it's making a comebackbut in the s, gluing patterned rolls to your living room was a decorating win. Inan engineer named Al Fielding and a Swiss inventor named Marc Chavannes wanted to bring a wallpaper to market with a raised texture.
As an experiment, they glued two shower curtains together, sealing them so tightly that air bubbles were created. But few consumers wanted to cocoon themselves in a padded room, and the wrap-as-wallpaper idea never took off. With their wallpaper dreams dashed, Fielding and Chavannes decided to take their glued-curtain idea and transfer it to greenhouses, where the material could be used to insulate buildings and retain heat.
This worked, but it was still hard to convince buyers to enclose their environment in plastic. For a time, it seemed like Bubble Wrap would remain a good idea without much of a purpose. ByFielding and Chavannes had incorporated Sealed Air, a business umbrella for marketing their Bubble Wrap product. Their marketing expert, Frederick W. Bowers, learned that IBM was preparing to ship their decimal computer to buyers. Previously, shippers used newspaper, sawdust, or horse hair to protect delicate items.
Impressed, IBM soon began using Bubble Wrap to protect delicate electronics from damage during transit. By the mids, Bubble Wrap had become a shipping institution. Like Xerox, Kleenex, Coke, and other brand names that became so ubiquitous that they began to slip into day-to-day vocabularies, Bubble Wrap is actually a trademarked product of Sealed Air.
No competing air-cushioning company can use the term. Actors sometimes carry backpacks stuffed with the product so they're not forced to lug around heavy books during a long shooting day. Could Bubble Wrap cushion a fall? While we would never recommend you put it to the test, one theory says maybe.
In Decembersecurity officials were called to the Kirtland Air Force base in Albuquerque, New Mexico, after reports of gunshots were heard. Artist Bradley Hart has a unique approach to modern art. Using a syringe, he injects paint into individual air cylinders of Bubble Wrap, creating pixelated-looking landscapes and portraits.
Hart also displays the reverse side of these works, which feature running paint from the injections and serve as a counterpoint to the more disciplined image on the front. Sacrificing fun for practicality, in Sealed Air began offering iBubble Wrapa product that ships flat and uninflated so it takes up less space in warehouses. It's as effective as regular Bubble Wrap, with one caveat: once filled, it doesn't make any satisfying noise when popped.
What happens when you drop an pound pumpkin from a foot crane? Normally, a crime scene. Landing on the product, the mammoth squash was completely intact.
Some have theorized it may have to do with our ancestral habit of crushing ticks or other insects that plagued us—although the truth may be a little less morbid. Inpsychology professor Kathleen Dillon conducted a study in which she found that subjects were more relaxed and less tired after a popping session.
One possible reason: Humans are soothed by tactile sensations of touch, which is why some cultures favor smooth stones or "worry beads" to manipulate for comfort. That might explain why virtual popping on cell phones or screens doesn't have quite the same effect.Bumblebees are large, fuzzy insects with short, stubby wings. They are larger than honeybees, but they don't produce as much honey. However, they are very important pollinators. Without them, food wouldn't grow.
Two-thirds of the world's crop species depend on animals to transfer pollen between male and female flower parts, according to ecologist Rachel Winfree, an assistant professor in the department of entomology at Rutgers University.
Many animals are pollinators — including birds, bats and butterflies — but "there's no question that bees are the most important in most ecosystems ," she said in a article in National Wildlife magazine.
While other animals pollinate, bumblebees are particularly good at it. Their wings beat times or more per second, according to the National Wildlife Federationand the beating combined with their large bodies vibrates flowers until they release pollen, which is called buzz pollination. Buzz pollination helps plants produce more fruit.
The largest is the queen of the Bombus dahlbomii, which can grow up to 1. This is three to four times longer than the American bumblebee, according to Scientific American. It has often been said that bumblebees defy aerodynamics and should not be able to fly. However, a recent study resolved the enigma and showed how the tiny wings keep the bee in the air. The study, published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences inused high-speed photography to show that bumblebees flap their wings back and forth rather than up and down.
The wing sweeping is a bit like a partial spin of a "somewhat crappy" helicopter propeller, researcher Michael Dickinson, a professor of biology and insect flight expert at the University of Washington, told Live Science in a article.
However, the angle to the wing also creates vortices in the air — like small hurricanes. The eyes of those mini-hurricanes have lower pressure than the surrounding air, so, keeping those eddies of air above its wings helps the bee stay aloft.
With so many species, it isn't surprising that bumblebees are found all over the world. For example, the largest bumblebee is found in Argentina and Chile and the rusty patched bumblebee is found in the United States and Canada. Bumblebees usually build their nests close to the ground — under piles of wood, dead leaves and compost piles — or even below ground in abandoned rodent tunnels, according to Orkin.
Bumblebees are some of the most social creatures in the animal kingdom. A group of bumblebees is called a colony. Colonies can contain between 50 and individuals, according to the National Wildlife Federation. A dominant female called the queen rules the colony.
The other bees serve her or gather food or care for developing larvae. During the late fall, the entire colony dies, except for the queen. She hibernates during the winter months underground and starts a new colony in the spring. Bumblebees eat nectar and pollen made by flowers. The sugary nectar provides the bees with energy while the pollen provides them with protein, according to The Bumblebee Conservation Trust.Let me show you the interesting Facts about Bubbles below.
You can create bubble from the soap filled with water. The soap bubbles only last for few seconds after you create them. The bubble will disappear after it faces contact with other objects. The bubbles are created by the people for various reasons. They use it for artistic performance, or even for enjoyment. Bubbles seem to change the colors when they are reflected by the light. The colors are from the interference of light of the soap film.
They are not produced like those that you see in the rainbow. If you are interested to know the complex mathematical problem of a minimal surface, you can study about soap bubble. The surface of a soap bubble has constant mean curvature because it has different pressure inside and outside. The soap film has zero mean curvature for it has equal pressure for inside and outside.
The usage of soap bubble films is always associated with the problem solving applications. It was used to decide the geometry of a surface area by Frei Otto. Bubbles are used widely in education. The teachers use bubbles as media to show the students different concepts such as mirrored surface, color formation, elastic properties, transparency, convex surfaces and flexibility. Find out aluminum foil facts here. There are different kinds of shapes that the teachers can present to the students by checking bubbles such as hexagon, tetrahedron, cube, sphere, circle, triangle and square.
There are positive effects that the young children can get by playing the artificial bubbles for entertainment. The children have enhanced motor skills and motion skills. In s, Chemtoy was a company located in Chicago which sold bubble solution. Then the solution is very popular among people. There is a report which states that million bottles of bubble solution are sold every year. Get facts about Bubble Wrap here.
The soap bubbles will freeze when you blow them with the air temperature less than 5 degree F or 15 degree C. Bubble is often combined with art performance.
The performers often create giant bubbles. Others try to create the bubbles in various forms. Facts about Cloning Animals are something intricate. It has been an interesting topic to discuss.Kids seem to be drawn to the messiest things — mud, bubbles, big puddles of water, dirty leaves and grass, and the list goes on. But there is so much more to bubbles than just some excitement and often, a big mess — but on a positive note, its basically just soap. Babies and toddlers typically start producing these sounds not necessarily all at once between 6 and 18 months.Fun With Bubbles! - Physics for Kids
See if he will imitate either just the sound or the entire word this will depend on what stage your child is at with regards to sound and language development. After the bubbles have disappeared, pause and wait. See if your child will verbalize or vocalize that he wants more bubbles.
Many young children will grab the bubble wand as an indication that they want this activity to continue.
Now you are setting up a routine for your child, a routine in which you are building language. It tends to be easiest to start by having your child practice blowing through a straw e.
I used to get my children to do this outside of meal times and would tell them that we are playing a game now. Once your child is able to blow bubbles into a straw you can see if they can manage to blow bubbles via a bubble wand.
This can be more challenging because she will need to be able to pucker her lips and blow at the same time. Take a look at both of these bubble straw options click on the image for more information! With older children, you can still work on language skills by talking about the bubbles and what the child is doing. There are also many great commercial bubble solutions available. Everything from scented bubbles I would not recommend these to younger children as they will want to drink the bubble solutioncolored bubbles and bubbles that last a long time before they pop.
I hope that this article has given you some insights into how a simple activity such as bubbles can mean so much for a child. So get out there and start blowing bubbles with your kids! I knew blowing bubbles is always a crowd favorite with young children and also often with dogs but I had no idea about the impact on their early sound production and motor development. Thank you, too, for the recipe. Now that my kids are old enough to follow recipes and make their own, I will have to show them this!
There are so many simple every day activities parents do with their children without realizing the learning potential!
Blowing bubbles is just once such activity. That is amazing! I blow bubbles A LOT with my little nephews. It is fun and I am even more glad that I did it now that I know this! It is so nice to know that I am contributing to their development in a positive way just by being playful. I have often thought that learning can be derived from every fun activity with children and this is certainly true with blowing bubbles.
I am loving the idea of it helping to enhance speech in children from an early age but also concerned that at such young age, they could be tempted to drink the soapy liquid.
My siblings drank liquid soap accidentally as kids, though I was too young to understand the effects then, but looking back now, one knows that was an awful stuff. So does any of your recommended bubbles tell us how safe the liquids are?
Or should i just stick to diy home bubbles? The activities in this article are meant for young children under the age of 4. A child of this age should never be left alone with bubble solution.December 16, by Robin Koontz. We all know how fascinating they are, evoking happy memories of blowing and chasing the mystical orbs with our friends.
Bubbles provide the opportunity to study science concepts such as elasticity, surface tension, chemistry, light, and even geometry.
Your students can engage in processes such as observation, experimentation, investigation, and discovery, simply by studying bubbles. For starters, here is a fun demonstration that you can perform as you explain some of the science of bubbles for kids. Follow the recipe at the end of this article to make some super strong bubbles for your act.
Wearing a clown suit is optional. A bubble is just air wrapped in soap film. Soap film is made from soap and water or other liquid. The outside and inside surfaces of a bubble consist of soap molecules. A thin layer of water lies between the two layers of soap molecules, sort of like a water sandwich with soap molecules for bread. They work together to hold air inside.
Create a bubble that stretches out using a large wand that you can make from a piece of wire. Whoosh it through the air so that the bubble follows and grows behind it. Then, with great drama, let the bubble go. Give the students a chance to note what happens to it before it pops. Why is a bubble round?
Bubbles can stretch and become all kinds of crazy looking shapes. But if you seal a bubble by flipping it off your wand, the tension in the bubble skin shrinks to the smallest possible shape for the volume of air it contains. Compared to any other shape, a sphere has the smallest surface area for the amount of volume.
Blow several bubbles and have the students blow and fan them to keep them from landing. The object here is to watch them pop without obvious interference. Why do bubbles pop? Other than being poked or landing on something sharp, bubbles pop when the water between the soap film surfaces evaporates.
If you blow a bubble on a calm winter day, a bubble can even freeze and last for several minutes before it wisps away. Also, the colder the outside temperature is, the higher a bubble might fly. Blow more bubbles and ask a few students to study them close-up. What do they see? Is a bubble really transparent, or do bubbles have colors? Can they see their faces in the bubbles?
The distance between the layers gets smaller as the water evaporates, making the colors change. Blow several bubbles with a straw so that you have a three of them stuck together — this might take practice!
Why do bubbles stick together? Since a bubble tends to minimize its surface area, bubbles will join together to share one common wall. Three bubbles will meet at the center, always at an angle of degrees. This is not as easy to set up, but not that difficult and a very cool experiment: use two sheets of clear plastic that are about a half inch apart.
You could put one sheet on a table and prop up the second with thin blocks. Soak the sheets in a bubble solution, place them, and then blow bubbles between them.